Polish version | Wersja polska| Omniscience |

METACOSMOLOGY

by

Zbigniew Jacyna-Onyszkiewicz



Faculty of Physics
Adam Mickiewicz University
ul. Umultowska 85
61-614 Poznañ, Poland
zbigonys@main.amu.edu.pl

Poznañ 1999






Contents
Introduction
1. Fundamental facts and observations about the universe
2. Physical cosmology
2.1. Classical cosmology
2.2. Inflationary cosmology
2.3. Quantum cosmology
3. Metacosmology
3.1. The origin of principles of quantum cosmology
3.2. The source of existence and rationality of the universe
4. Conclusions
 
 
 

Introduction

One of the most profound questions of science is that about the origin, evolution and structure of the universe. It has been for ages the subject of interest of philosophers and theologians, but the answer was far beyond science. Only the rapid development of sciences in the 20th century has made it possible to attempt at answering it in a consistent and general way. The 20th century witnessed the birth of a new field of science – cosmology (known also as physical cosmology) – concerned with the study of the universe as a whole. Cosmology understood as the global theory of the universe may be considered as a field of physics as it essentially is the physics of the universe. At present it is one of the fastest developing sciences and has been much successful in providing an explanation of the origin, evolution and structure of the universe in the way consistent with astronomical observations.

Unfortunately, cosmology, which is a science based on empirical and mathematical methodology of physics, cannot provide answers to such fundamental questions as: Is there any sense in the existence of the universe? What was before the universe came into being? Why is the universe rational? What is the man’s position in the universe?

In an attempt at answering these questions in this book, we have to leave the territory of physical cosmology and enter the field of philosophy. That is why the title of the book is ‘Metacosmology’ where the prefix meta has been used in the meaning of beyond. Thus, the title refers to the considerations concerning the universe as a whole, extending beyond the physical cosmology. In this aspect, metacosmology deals with metaphysical problems referring to cosmos and can be treated as a field of metaphysics.

We shall consider the properties of the universe on the four levels: the level of facts obtained from direct astronomical observations by physical methods, the classical and quantum theories of Big Bang and the metaphysical level. The latter lead to a certain general model of reality and this model can provide answers to the fundamental existential questions. Moreover, the model offers a holistic and consistent view of the reality, in full agreement with contemporary physics.

The book will be of interest to the readers of general education background interested in getting answers to the fundamental existential problems as the book provides some original material worth considering even if they will not be able to accept the proposed model and its implications.

The book has been written in an easy style and does not contain any mathematical formulae. However, because astronomically large numbers appear rather a lot, the power notation has been used: for instance a milliard (american - billion) seconds is written as 109 s, and one millionth fraction of a meter is 10-6 m.

Chapter 1 gives a description of the basic astronomical facts and observations. Chapter 2 presents basic information on the three main branches of physical cosmology: classical, inflation and quantum approaches. The description of each approach ends with the questions which cannot be answered within these particular branches. Chapter 3 goes beyond the physical cosmology into metacosmological considerations, which enabled derivation of the quantum theory principles and quantum cosmology. Section 3.1 ends with the questions to which no answers can be given within the frames of the so far proposed metacosmology. Section 3.2 introduces the notions which are far from physics, but which allow a construction of the metacosmology providing answers to all fundamental existential questions and explaining the sense of existence of man and the universe. This new formulation of metacosmology also indicates the source of existence and rational character of the universe.
 

1. Fundamental facts and observations about the universe The most obvious feature concerning the universe as a whole, known from the very beginning of man’s existence is that:

Fact 0. The sky at night is dark.

For ages people did not realise that this fact brings information about the distribution of luminous matter in the universe. It can be proved that the eternal universe characterised by uniform distribution of luminous matter cannot spread without limits.

On the basis of observations of the Moon, planets, the Sun, the Milky Way and distant objects out of our galaxy performed with the tools of contemporary physics, astronomy and cosmic technology, it has been established beyond doubt that:

Fact 1. The laws of physics valid on the Earth also hold in the observed part of the universe.

This fundamental fact allows the use of the methods developed on the Earth for investigation of the universe accessible to us. This fact makes the grounds for development of astrophysics and then cosmology.

Astrophysics has proved that:

Fact 2. In the observable part of the universe there are no objects older than 20 milliard years.

This is a very important fact enabling a determination of the size of the observable universe. According to Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity information cannot be sent at a speed greater than that of light in vacuum of 300 000 km/s. Thus, we can observe astronomical objects which are not farther away from the Earth than 20 milliard (american - billion) light years. This distance determines the horizon of our observations. Therefore, the observable universe has the shape of a sphere of the radius smaller than 20 milliard (american - billiob) light years, so smaller than 4 x 1025m, with the Earth at its centre. This sphere is the largest system accessible for investigation with physical methods. In the physical cosmology this system is treated as the universe. The size of the universe is difficult to imagine. To help it let’s make the following rescaling. Let’s assume that the distance from the Earth to the Sun of about 150 milliard (american - billion) meters, travelled by light within approximately 8 minutes is shrunk to 1 mm. In this scale the distance to the stars closest to the Sun is of the order of 300m. The diameter of the Milky Way, the galaxy composed of at least 100 milliard (american - billion) years (including the Sun) in this scale is of about 6000 km. If we shrink the size of the universe even more and assume that the diameter of the Milky Way is 1 cm, then, in this scale the radius of the sphere of the observable universe is of about 1500m. The sphere is almost uniformly filled with at least 100 milliard (american - billion) galaxies approximately 1 cm long, separated by a few tens centimetres. The galaxies are grouped in clusters and superclusters. The observations have proved that the sphere has also large regions – the size of a few meters in this scale - devoid of galaxies. However, in the large scale – of an order of a 100 metres and more, the spatial distribution of galaxies is isotropic and uniform (independent of the site and direction of observation). Thus, the observable universe can be imagined as a ball uniformly filled with the gas of galaxies.

Fact 3. In a large scale (of the order of milliards light years or more) the observable universe is uniform and isotropic.

Moreover, the observations seem to indicate that:

Fact 4. The space of the observable universe in a large scale has euclidean geometry. This is the geometry which we were taught at school and this fact implies for instance that the sum of the angles of a triangle of side length of milliard light years is 1800, irrespectively of the triangle position in the universe.

It is understood that, regarding the finite speed of light, distant objects are observed at the earlier moments of their existence. For example, if the Sun suddenly stopped shining, we would learn about it after 8 minutes time, which is needed for the light to travel from the Sun to the Earth. Astronomical observations prove that the earlier universe was different from that existing today, e.g. it encompassed many more radiogalaxies and quasars. Therefore, the universe has its own history and changes in time. In other words:

Fact 5. The universe in not homogeneous in time.

In the mid 60s, it was discovered that the universe was filled with electromagnetic radiation of the properties similar to that used in microwave ovens, characterised by the temperature of about 2.7 K. Later studies have shown that the Earth moves with respect to this radiation at a speed of about 620 km/s towards the constellations of Hydra and Centaur. Moreover, the distribution of this radiation was found to correspond to the isotropic radiation of an absolutely black body. Deviations from isotropy appear only at the level of one hundred thousandth value of the average. Thus:

Fact 6. The universe is filled with highly isotropic microwave radiation of the spectral distribution of the absolutely black body. In different regions of the sky the radiation has slightly different temperature. The differences or temperature fluctuations are small and equal to about 10-5 K.

The radiation is known as the background or relict radiation. According to physics, electromagnetic radiation can be treated as a set of microparticles which are called photons. Sometimes, instead of a photon we talk about a quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Astrophysical estimations show that:

Fact 7. In the universe there are about 30 milliard photons per a single atom.

This means that the kind of matter found on the Earth is something exceptional. Moreover, according to astronomical observations:

Fact 8. Luminous matter in the universe is composed of hydrogen atoms in 75%, helium atoms in 25% and trace amounts of other elements, mainly lithium, mean density of matter in the universe equals 10-29 of the density of water.

Also from astronomical observations, in particular from the observations of the dynamics of clusters of galaxies, it follows that:

Fact 9. The majority of matter in the universe is non-luminous (the so-called dark matter) and thus invisible for the observer from the Earth.

It cannot be excluded that dark matter makes more than 90% of the matter in the universe. The composition of dark matter is not known yet. Probably it is a mixture of elementary particles, including exotic ones which have not been observed in laboratories.

In 1929, an American astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that:

Fact 10. Distant galaxies move away from the Earth at a speed directly proportional to the distance from the Earth. Their speed depends only on the distance and not on the direction in which a given galaxy is observed.

For example a galaxy distanced from the Earth by 100 million light years moves away from the Earth at a speed of 2000 km/s, while that at a distance of a milliard (american - billion) light years – at a speed of 20 000 km/s. This means that the universe expands, and its galaxies move away one from another, so the density of matter in the universe gradually decreases.

Finally:

Fact 11. No rotation of the observable universe has been detected.

All these fundamental facts require explanation, which is the subject of concern of physical cosmology.
 
 

2. Physical cosmology In the ancient Greece, cosmology was the natural science. At present it is understood as the knowledge of the universe as a whole and the laws within it. Often the term cosmology is used either as part of philosophy or as a science, therefore, to avoid confusion, we distinguish philosophical cosmology and physical cosmology – which refers to physical investigation of the largest possible system – the observable part of the universe. The physical cosmology is divided into classical and quantum ones. We shall start with a brief description of the basic assumptions and results of the classical physical cosmology based on observations and classical physical theories used for description of its dynamics. 2.1. Classical cosmology The main assumption of the classical cosmology is the so-called Kopernik’s (Copernicus) principle. The essence of the Copernicus approach was the recognition that the Earth is not the centre of the universe. In general, according to this principle, each site in the universe is equally important, and our position is typical. Disregarding the small-scale distribution of matter, in a large scale it is isotropic and uniform. The Copernicus principle is thus a general conclusion following from the observational data.

Since the only known forces which can act at intergalactic distances are gravitational forces, therefore, the second basic assumption of the classical physical cosmology is that the gravitational forces determine the dynamics of the universe.

Physics has an excellent theory of gravitation formulated in 1915 by Albert Einstein. This theory, known as the general theory of relativity, is at present the best experimentally confirmed physical theory. It has been verified with the accuracy of 1 over 100 billions (1014). As follows from the uniform and isotropic character of the universe, in a large scale the gravitational forces are, on the average, the same. The general theory of relativity reduces the phenomenon of gravity to the inertial motion in a curved spacetime. Thus, the uniformity of the universe implies that the curvature of its space is the same at each point. It can be proved that there are only three kinds of space characterised by a constant curvature independent of position : the space of spherical geometry (the sum of the angles in a triangle is greater than 1800), the space of hyperbolic geometry (the sum of the angles in a triangle is lower than 1800) and space of euclidean (planar) geometry. The spherical space has a finite volume and there exists in it the greatest finite distance, whereas in the hyperbolic and planar spaces an object can move away at an infinite distance. For this reason the universe of the spherical space is referred to as closed and the universes of the other two geometries are open. Moreover, the total energy of the universe of the closed geometry is equal to zero. The positive energy of matter in such a universe is exactly compensated by the negative energy of the gravitational field. The total energy of the universe of the hyperbolic or planar geometry is infinite.

The geometry of the universe depends on the average density of matter in it. If this density is lower than a certain critical value, the universe has the space of the hyperbolic geometry. If it is equal to a certain critical value, the space of the universe is planar (euclidean), and if it is higher than a certain critical value – spherical.

At present astronomical observations and theoretical calculations do not provide an unambiguous answer to the question whether the density of matter in the universe is lower or higher than the critical value. We can only say that this density is not much different from the critical one. In combination with Fact 4, it means that the observed part of the universe is a small fragment of a finite or infinite universe.

If the density of matter was lower or equal to the critical value, the theory predicts that this density would gradually decrease, tending to zero, with no time limitations. If it was greater than the critical value, it would decrease for at least 100 milliard (1011) years and then it would start to grow to reach the infinite value over the next 200 milliard (american - billion) years. At this moment, according to the general theory of relativity, the universe will end – the spacetime and the matter it contains will disappear.

In all types of space of a constant curvature, when we go back in time, the density of matter increases to infinity. By extrapolation we find that about 15 milliard (american - billion) years ago, this density had an infinite value. Such a state is known as the initial singularity. According to the laws of thermodynamics, an increase in the density of the universe implies an increase in its temperature. In the state of the initial singularity, the temperature, similarly as the density, takes an infinite value.

According to the laws of classical physics, the history of the universe could be described as a gigantic explosion from the state of the initial singularity; that is why the theoretical model describing this history is often called the Big Bang theory.

The temperature of the universe can be treated as a physical quantity, which is a measure of the mean kinetic energy of particles. The greater the mean velocity of particles, the higher the temperature of the universe. In contemporary accelerators, we are able to carry out collisions of particles of kinetic energy corresponding to a temperature of about 1015 K According to the Big Bang theory, the universe had this temperature for the time of 10-11s after the initial singularity, which in cosmology is denoted as the zero moment t=0. In the earlier time, 0<t<10-11s, the universe had the characteristics which we are not able to reproduce in our laboratories. Therefore, the cosmology of the universe younger than 10-11s is based on extrapolations of the known physical theories or their hypothetical generalisations over the temperatures and energies inaccessible for experimental studies.

There is a physical theory known as the standard model of elementary particles, which well describes the behaviour of particles of energies equal or lower than that corresponding to the temperature of 1015 K. Therefore, we can say that our knowledge allows us to reproduce, at least in general, the history of the universe from t=10-11 s after the Big Bang till the present. At t=10-11 s, the density of matter was 1028 times greater than that of water. At present the ratio of the difference between the matter density in the universe and the critical density (corresponding to the euclidean geometry) was lower than 3, at t=10-11 s it was lower than10-8, which means that at that time, the universe geometry could be well assumed as euclidean.

Assuming the above physical conditions implying that at t=10-11 s the universe was filled with hot matter of the temperature of 1015 K and density of 1028 times greater than that of water, composed of the known elementary particles: quarks, leptons, gauge bosons and dark matter of not ideally homogeneous density, we are able to reconstruct the history of the universe. We can explain the contemporary structure of the universe, composition of matter, distribution of radiation, etc.

The following main stages of the universe evolution can be distinguished:

This amazing scenario of the universe evolution is known as the Big Bang theory. It has been a great achievement of human thought as it gives the first scientific description of the universe history, quantitative and consistent with observations. This theory is attributed to Alexander Friedman, Georges Lemaî tre and Gieorgij Gamov.

Although the theory provides explanations of a great number of problems, many are still left unanswered. Some of them are:

  1. Why is the universe so planar?
  2. Why is the universe so homogeneous, although it is composed of causally unrelated regions?
  3. What mechanism caused the Big Bang?
  4. Why is the matter in the universe composed of certain and not other elementary particles?
  5. Why is the universe composed not only of matter but also antimatter? (Almost all elementary particles have their correspondent – an antiparticle. When a particle and an antiparticle meet, they cease to exist and emit energy in the form of photons.)
  6. Why are there about 30 milliard photons per a single atom?
To answer these questions we should first of all learn what happened in the universe in the time t<10-11 s. Partial answer is provided by the so-called inflation cosmology.

2.2. Inflationary cosmology

The standard model of elementary particles has explained many phenomena of high-energy physics, however, for some reasons it cannot be considered a final and fundamental physical theory. First of all this model uses over 60 different elementary particles involved in many interactions but fails to explain the reasons for the diversity. Moreover, the model gives a separate description of weak electric and strong nuclear interactions, disregarding gravitational forces. The model has been formulated with 18 constants, which we are not able to calculate. For these reasons, if we wish to study the initial moments of the universe evolution, we have to make use of theories, which are generalisations of the standard model. Direct generalisation of the standard model has led to the development of a group of theories of grand unification known as GUT. Different formulations of GUT have been proposed, and at present no experimental verification can be suggested to verify which of them is true. All formulations proposed have certain common features.

The grand unification programme aims at combining the weak electromagnetic interactions with strong nuclear ones in a common theoretical scheme. At first glance such an attempt is bound to fail as these interactions have much different intensity and concern different elementary particles. However, it was shown that the intensity of these interactions depends on the temperature of the medium, and although in the present universe they differ substantially, in the early hot universe they were similar. According to GUT these interactions were identical for t ?  10-35 s, when the temperature of the universe was of the order of 1028 K, and the matter density was 1076 that of water. At that time the presently observed part of the universe was a ball of only 4 mm. The size of the universe observed at that time was 10-27 m. So in this early epoch, the region which has expanded to the presently observed universe was 1024 greater than the universe observable at that time. Therefore, the presently observable universe should not be uniform and should contain many magnetic monopoles, which are the simplest topological defects (the so-called Higgs fields) appearing according to the theory of grand unification at the border of misadjusted regions. The mass of the monopoles was estimated as about 1016 that of the hydrogen atom, and their density in the universe is predicted as comparable to that of atoms.

At present we are not able to verify GUT but we can study its implications. Unification of the above mentioned interactions demands the existence of the so-called gauge bosons transferring the interactions and changing certain particles into others (quarks into leptons and leptons into quarks). The gauge bosons must have mass great enough to be produced in large numbers by collisions of particles at temperatures of the order of 1028 K. The grand unification theories predict the presence of two kinds of particles: the X particles which are heavy gauge bosons and magnetic monopoles. .

The X gauge bosons, in contrast to other known elementary particles permit the transformation of matter into antimatter. This property of X particles is of the key importance in explaining why the present universe is almost entirely composed of matter as the X particles and their antiparticles do not disintegrate at the same rate. Consequently, the initial state of the universe in which the matter and antimatter were in equilibrium could in ~ 10-35 s evolve into the asymmetric state with a significant domination of matter. The X bosons are short-lived, so they quickly break up into leptons and quarks, whereas the magnetic monopoles are permanent particles. Their contribution in the matter density is so high that our universe should have already ceased to exist as the time of its existence would be of only 104 years. Moreover, there is no experimental evidence for their presence in the presently observed universe. Therefore, GUT’s implications do not agree with the observations. Thus, either GUT is incorrect and should be rejected or there is a way of removing magnetic monopoles from the observable universe.

In 1981, Alan Guth, an American physicist, suggested a solution. He assumed that in the time t=10-35 s to 10-33 s, after the beginning of expansion, the universe went through a rapid exponential expansion. This kind of expansion implies that roughly every 10-35 s all distances in the universe doubled. Consequently, in a fraction of a second all distances expanded e.g. 2200=1.6x1060 times. This rapid swelling of the universe is called inflation. The hypothesis of inflation developed into a separate discipline -– inflationary cosmology, which is at present the central problem in the studies of the early universe.

If the universe went through the process of inflation, the whole presently observed universe could have developed from a region smaller than the universe observed at t=10-35 s. Homogeneity and isotropy of the presently observed universe become understandable as we see only an expanded image of the region which was small enough to get smoothed before the inflation. The inhomogeneities apparently exist, although they were moved out of the observable part of the universe.

Inflation excludes the possibility of observation of rotations of the universe as a whole, because, even if the universe rotated very fast before the inflation, as a result of its expansion as demanded by the law of conservation of the moment of momentum, the rotation would become too slow to be observed.

The theory of inflation solves the problem of magnetic monopoles, as the presently observed part of the universe could have developed from a region so small that it could have contained at least one linear topological defect conditioning the existence of a magnetic monopole. However, in order to solve the problem of magnetic monopoles, the process of inflation should last at least 100 times longer than the age of the universe at the moment the inflation began. If so, the observable universe may contain one or at most a few magnetic monopoles. If the time of expansion was long enough to explain why we do not detect any magnetic monopoles, the average density of matter should differ from that of the critical density by no more than its one millionth fraction.

This result is very interesting for the following three reasons. First of all it explains the euclidean geometry of the observed universe. Secondly, if the density of matter in the universe is so close to the critical value, we will never be able to experimentally discern whether we live in the universe of spherical or hyperbolic geometry, since our observations cannot be made at the accuracy of one part per million. Thirdly, the observed density of the luminous matter is at least 10 times lower than the critical one, so if the inflation hypothesis is true, over 90% of the matter must occur in the non-luminous form, so not as stars or galaxies.

Thus it seems that the universe is mainly composed of dark matter. The abundance of helium 3 and deuterium suggests that if the universe is filled with dark matter of a density close to the critical one, the matter cannot have the form which can take part in nuclear reactions. This could mean that the major part of matter in the universe occurs in the form completely different from the elementary particles we know.

If the inflation process had not taken place, the universe space geometry would have been spherical and the universe would have existed only for a short time. Thanks to the inflation expansion, the universe can survive very long, even billions of years. Because of a large number of magnetic monopoles, the GUT theories suggest the spherical geometry of the universe. If so, the universe has a huge but finite size and will exist for a finite time. The observable part of the universe is so small that it seems flat. Likewise, a fisherman would not notice that the surface of the pond at which he catches fish on a windless day is not really flat because of the spherical shape of the Earth.

Taking into account the rapid character of the inflation, the universe could have been forced out of the thermodynamical equilibrium for a fraction of a second, and this, together with the earlier discussed properties of gauge bosons X would lead to a certain domination of matter over antimatter. The remainder matter and antimatter would annihilate producing a large number of protons. This process can explain why there are 30 milliard photons per a single atom.

The inflation scenario is very attractive for cosmologists as it explains in a natural and coherent way most of the facts mentioned in Chapter 1 and answers the questions which the classical cosmology of Friedman-Lemaî tre-Gamow leaves open. The question is however, what induced inflation and why the matter in the universe was heated up to 1028 K. According to the classical cosmology, the inflation takes place in the time when the density of matter is constant in spite of a rapid expansion of the universe. This would imply that matter is produced during the inflation. The matter is endowed with positive energy and satisfaction of the energy conservation law requires that it is produced at the expense of the negative energy of gravitational field. As mentioned earlier, such a full compensation of energies takes place only in the universe of spherical geometry, so in a closed universe. The occurrence of inflation would suggest that our universe has this very geometry. In such a universe, everything comes into being from nothing. The only requirement is the existence of a microscopic region of spherical geometry and the configuration permitting the beginning of inflation, which in a fraction of a second would produce a space of the size greater than the presently observed universe.

The conditions needed for the inflation to start are still a mystery. Different theories and mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of inflation and the heating up of the universe at the end of this process, however, the results are not satisfactory. In spite of increasingly refined theoretical constructions, the problems have not been solved in full agreement with observations.

Although the inflation cosmology is not a closed chapter yet, it has been an important step in understanding the universe evolution. The hypothesis of inflation is one of the most important ideas in contemporary cosmology. It provides simple and convincing explanations of many questions, which could not be answered before. It seems that the difficulties of the inflation cosmology are of technical nature and will be solved in future. Therefore, it is supposed that the process of inflation really took place in the early moments of the universe evolution. The inflation cosmology explains many properties of the observable universe, irrespective of its actual origin. This is a very important feature as it allows prediction of the current state of the universe without the need of accurate knowledge of its initial state. On the other hand, this feature is a kind of impediment in understanding the origin of the universe because its current state has developed, in great extent, irrespective of its pre-inflation state. Although the process of inflation effectively obscures the information on the initial state of the universe, we shall try to answer the following questions:

1. What existed before the process of inflation?

2. Where from did the microscopic space of spherical geometry appear?

These questions have been answered by the quantum cosmology. 2.3. Quantum cosmology At the time t» 10-35 s, when the process of inflation started, the size of the universe was much smaller than that of an atom. As follows from the experiments of atomic physics, in such a small scale the classical physical theories fail and the quantum theory has to be employed. Therefore, it seems necessary to apply the quantum theory to describe the pre-inflation universe, which is the essence of the quantum cosmology.

The first steps in this direction were made by Bruce De Witt, Charles Misner and Jonh A. Wheeler in the 60s. However, quantum cosmology has not been treated seriously until the 80s, when the classical attempts at description of the early universe eventually failed.

In the classical theory, when moving back in time, the size of the universe tends to zero, while the gravitational field intensity, density of matter and temperature tend to infinity. It indicates that the universe emerged from a certain initial singularity – a spherical space of infinite curvature and infinite density of energy at which the known laws of physics do not work. This singularity is not a question of assumption of a certain convention or a consequence of a purely formal property of the models of the universe. It is a result of the famous theorems on singularities proved in the 60s by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose. According to these theorems, each model of expanding universe when considered back in time meets the initial singularity. At this initial singularity it is impossible to formulate the equations of the general theory of relativity, so the general theory of relativity foresees its failure because it shows that the beginning of the universe or its evolution cannot be predicted from it. If cosmology is to be a science, the laws of physics must be valid also at the moment of the universe origin, so the classical theory of gravitation should be replaced by a better - quantum one.

The quantum theory has been developed for a description of phenomena in the atomic and subatomic scale. The striking agreement of its predictions with experiment puts it among the greatest achievements of science. It seems one of the most important theories of physics. There is no doubt as to the correctness of its description of the microworld, however, its application for a description of the universe seems senseless or contradictory. Nevertheless, there are at least the following two reasons for the correctness of such an approach.

The universe of spherical space was of the size of the order of the Planck length at 10-44 s after the beginning of the expansion. At this time the fundamental assumption of the classical and inflation cosmology (the assumption that the Einstein’s general theory of relativity holds) fail. If we wish to know anything about the origin of the universe we have to find out the behaviour of gravitation forces at that time. In the so-called Planck epoch gravitation was a manifestation of quantum properties of the space and matter.

The unique properties of the Planck epoch can be understood only having realised the exceptional features of quantum theory giving a precise description of the microworld.

The quantum theory questions the fundamental assumptions of classical physics concerning the structure and nature of the universe. These assumptions were maintained for a long time, rarely questioned and treated by many as obvious and confirmed by hitherto scientific developments. In brief these assumptions can be expressed as follows. Outside us – conscious people – there is an objective and cognisable material world. The matter contained in the universe exists in time and space. The universe can be studied by the empirical method. Having collected sufficient experimental data we can, by induction, formulate the laws of physics and present them in the form of mathematical models unambiguously reproducing the changes in time and space. In this way we get the possibility to predict the future behaviour of the matter. In this approach the universe can be reduced to certain automaton acting according to strict principles. In order to understand the functioning of the automaton, we have to decompose it into elements and study their mutual behaviour. This approach, known in philosophy and science as reductionism, has been so deeply rooted in our culture that it is often identified with the scientific method.

A rapid development of experimental methods and technology enabled the contemporary physicists a deep penetration into the world of small distances – the microworld. It has been experimentally established that the world is composed of elementary particles, which with the accuracy to distances of 10-17 m behave as structureless objects – material points. We can observe them as individual structureless objects only when they are recorded by the equipment capable of their detection. However, if they are not in the act of detection, so if they move, they have a very specific way of existence, unknown in the macroscopic world (in the world of large objects). Numerous and highly sophisticated experiments carried out on microscopic objects have shown that they are sets, or –to be more exact – superpositions of potential possibilities (states) of existence (actualisation) at the moment of measurement, at which one of the possibilities is chosen and recorded by the measuring equipment. At the moment of measurement a sudden and intrinsic transition happens from what is possible to what is real. A single possibility is chosen from among many superpositions of possibilities and it becomes reality. We talk about a jumpwise reduction of the superposition of possibilities.

We know exact mathematical formulation allowing a precise description of such a way of existence of microobjects. This formalism has been many times verified by a variety of methods and confirmed to a very high accuracy by many physical experiments. However, it does not describe the movement of physical objects in time and space – as the classical physics does – but the time and space evolution of potential possibilities leading to this or the other behaviour of a microobject at the time of measurement. The quantum theory in general does not predict exact behaviour of elementary particles, but allows exact determination of the chance or probability of their certain behaviour at the moment of measurement. Sometimes it is said that the principle held in the microworld is the probabilistic determinism. This is the way the contemporary physics restricts the possibility of using the ideas of determinism in the microworld. The conviction that determinism seems to be valid in the macroworld is first of all a result of the law of large numbers (macroscopic bodies are composed of a huge number of micro-particles). Similarly, it is easier to predict the behaviour of a crowd than that of an individual.

The quantum theory equations describing the evolution of probabilities are linear, but the reduction of superpositions of possibilities at the moment of measurement is strongly non-linear and cannot be described by these equations. It seems that there is no objective description (in time and space) of the reduction of possibilities at the moment of measurement, which would be in agreement with the demands of the theory of relativity. However, it should be noted that the effects following from the quantum theory are not in contradiction to the theory of relativity. The quantum theory does not explain when and why the reduction happens or why we cannot observe a linear superposition of states (possibilities). This fact implies that there is an inner inconsistency in the fundaments of the most important physical theory. This is the key issue of the contemporary physics, which has not been satisfactorily solved for the last 70 years.

Moreover, despite considerable efforts of many physicists who always try to improve their theories, no subterfuge has been found which would slightly change the theory and at the same time not lead to a logical catastrophe. This fact is symptomatic as the majority of other physical theories can be easily somewhat changed. The impossibility to improve the principles of the quantum theory seems to prevent finding a solution to the problem of quantum measurement, so the reasons and mechanism of the instantaneous jumpwise reduction of the possibilities at the moment of measurement remain unknown. This fact indicates that the quantum theory seems to delimit an unsurpassable border for recognition of nature by the empirical-mathematical method.

Moreover, it should be remembered that the quantum theory was more or less reconciled with the Einstein’s theory of relativity only on the level of the linear evolution of possibilities, whereas the non-linear and instantaneous reduction of possibilities is in direct contradiction to its spirit.

Discoveries in the microworld dismayed physicists as they unavoidably implied that the commonly accepted and disseminated ideas about the structure of matter were only ideal limiting cases and not the actual reality.

The discoveries brought also essential implications to the quantum cosmology, which treats the whole closed universe as a microscopic object subjected to the laws of quantum theory. In this approach, the quantum description implies that in the time t<<10-35 s, the spherical geometry of the universe undergoes specific fluctuations – spontaneous and unpredictable changes – resulting from the fact that geometrical quantities do not have strictly defined values but undergo a special quantum broadening. In the quantum theory no physical quantity except probability has a defined value. Moreover, this indeterminacy also holds for pair of certain quantities – determination of one of them means that the value of the other cannot be predicted. In the quantum theory this property is formulated as the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which is related to the earlier mentioned probabilistic determinism valid in the microworld.

In the Planck epoch, t=10-44 s, the geometry fluctuations become comparable with the values of the geometry parameters. Instead of a universe with a certain geometry, according to the quantum theory, we have a superposition of possible universes. Therefore the notions of space, in the sense of the general theory of relativity, and time, understood as a unidirectional parameter numbering the states of the universe, cease to be valid. Only after the Planck epoch, the superposition of possible universes boils down to one because the fluctuations of geometry disappear, and it becomes possible to talk about the time of one specific universe.

The question appears what is the size of the set of potentially possible universes. To answer it we have to explain a few fundamental questions of the quantum theory.

In the macroscopic world described by the laws of classical physics the energy is always conserved, i.e. it cannot be produced or destroyed. In the microworld described by the quantum theory, energy can spontaneously and unpredictably change from instant to instant, so it can fluctuate and therefore, it cannot have a certain specific value at a certain specific time. This indeterminacy of energy is very important. The shorter the time considered the greater the fluctuations can be, however, the mean value of energy is conserved – as in the classical physics. In a sense, we can say that the fluctuating microscopic system ‘borrows energy from somewhere’ but it has to give it back very quickly. According to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, large energy loans have to be returned very quickly, while smaller can be used by the system for a longer time. Thanks to this property, such a particle as a photon can suddenly and with no reason appear but after a short while it has to disappear. Such particles exist for a very short time as they appear at the expense of borrowed energy, whose value has to be conserved. Such photons exist for such a short time that they cannot be observed, but what we usually assume to be empty space contains abundance of such instantaneous particles – not only photons but all other elementary particles as well. Such short-lived particles are known as virtual to be distinguished from the real ones. If a virtual particle gets some energy from outside so that it is able to give back the borrowed energy, it becomes a real particle and does not have to disappear in a short time.

The virtual particles cannot be directly observed but we know from experiments that they exist because they leave experimentally observable traces of their existence. The traces can be measured exactly, for instance by spectroscopic methods.

Therefore, the vacuum is not the ontological emptiness (non-existence) but the set of all possible virtual particles. This set is known as the physical or quantum vacuum.

If in the quantum cosmology the universe is treated as a microscopic system subjected to the principles of the quantum theory, it makes sense to assume the existence of virtual universes and the quantum vacuum being the set of all possible virtual universes. In contradistinction to virtual elementary particles, a virtual universe can become a real one without external energy supply if it is closed, so its total energy is zero. In such a vacuum, according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, open virtual universes (of planar or hyperbolic geometry) cannot exist as their energy is infinite, and the time for which infinite energy can be borrowed is exactly zero.

On the other hand, in compliance with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for the time and energy, closed universes can exist infinitely long because at the transition from the virtual to the real state they do not have to borrow energy. Each virtual closed universe is thus a real one. Should these speculations be correct, there is an infinite set of closed universes. In this case there is no quantum vacuum understood as a set of virtual universes, because each virtual universe is real. Therefore, real universes of closed geometry are created spontaneously and causelessly out of nothing.

In quantum cosmology it is easy to create from an appropriate quantum vacuum, not only one universe but their infinite number, provided that they are closed, that is of zero total energy. Thus, the set of potentially possible universes is unlimited.

Mathematical formalism of quantum theory contains two elements: a general and unalterable set of principles and mathematical structure determining the admissible set of possibilities. This set of possibilities has a structure which in mathematics is referred to as the linear space. Therefore, instead of talking about a set of possibilities we can talk about the space of states of a given system. The space of states is determined by two factors: the so-called boundary conditions and the expression known as the operator of energy – the Hamiltonian.

Although we have no way of knowing it, we cannot exclude that different closed universes emerging from quantum vacuum have different boundary conditions and different Hamiltonians, which would mean that different laws of physics hold in different universes and each of them has a different space of states. Each of such universes can encompass a quantum vacuum comprising a set of virtual particles. It should be remembered, however, that elementary particles usually are not free and are involved in mutual interactions with forces depending on their nature. Also the virtual particles can interact, which means that there is a possibility of existence of more than one vacuum state, so a state without real particles. Different vacuum states have different energies, though they seem identical as they are empty, i.e. without real particles. The state of the lowest energy is called the real vacuum, while the others are known as false vacuum. The notion of the false vacuum appears in a natural way in all theories aiming at unification of description of elementary particles and their interactions, so also in the grand unification theories (GUT).

A false vacuum is not a permanent state, and after some time the system jumps to the state of the lowest energy, so to the real vacuum. Since this is a quantum process, it shows unavoidable indeterminism so is subjected to quantum fluctuations. This means that the process of disintegration of the false vacuum cannot be uniform in the whole space. Its occurrence involves a release of great energy. According to the GUT, the density of energy in the false vacuum can be approximately 1073 that of energy density of water.

The simplest hypothetical scenario of the origin of our universe implied by the quantum cosmology principles, could be as follows. A closed universe emerges from the quantum vacuum in a causeless, random and spontaneous way as a quantum fluctuation. The existence of this universe in time can be talked about only after the Planck epoch, so later than 10-44 s. The universe has a definite number of states, implied by the form of its hamiltonian and the boundary conditions which are the result of the quantum fluctuation. Therefore, it exits as a superposition of all possible universes from its space of states.

In t>10-44 s the quantum fluctuations of geometry disappear and the universe starts to expand, in compliance with the Einstein’s classical theory of gravity. However, the universe does not expand in an existing space – its expansion unceasingly created time and space. Space and time have just started. Matter existed as non-differentiated superdense energy, since the real separate particles had not emerged yet. In quantum cosmology time is not a direct quantity but is a product of the material contents of the universe and the matter distribution.

At t» 10-35 s, a state of false vacuum appeared, characterised by a constant energy density despite the universe expansion, and this energy brought a dominant contribution to the total energy density. Therefore the energy density in the universe remained constant. According to the laws of the general theory of relativity this caused enormous acceleration of the universe expansion, so initiated the process of inflation. The expanding universe doubled its size every 10-34 s. Every ten doublings the universe size increased 1024 times. The tremendous inflation of the universe caused a decrease of its temperature almost to the absolute zero. After disintegration of the false vacuum, at t» 10-30 s, the process of inflation stopped, the energy density started decreasing and the expansion of the universe continued at a decreasing rate. At the expense of the gigantic energy held in the false vacuum, the virtual particles became real. The released energy of the false vacuum partly transformed into the kinetic energy of elementary particles, which after the process of thermalisation was revealed as heat. The heat liberated after inflation caused an increase in the universe temperature up to about 1028 K and this huge heat survived as the relic or background radiation.

According to this simplest scenario following from the quantum cosmology, the basic features of the universe structure have been determined by the physical processes which ended already at 10-30 s after the universe emergence. After inflation, elementary particles have undergone many transformations, but eventually they were the building blocks of the matter, as we know it, stars, planets and people. If not for the process of inflation, appearing as a small fluctuation of the quantum vacuum, the universe would be a phenomenon occurring in a small space and lasting in a short time – it would be a very fast disappearing fluctuation.

Quantum cosmology can explain the mechanism of the universe creation and the inflation process, which have led to a Big Bang of our universe. Of course this scenario is highly speculative and drastically simplified. However, the important fact is that the quantum cosmology allows a construction of a scientific explanation of the origin of the universe in compliance with observations and laws of physics as well as its global structure. Probably in future more precise scenarios based on the future full quantum theory of gravitation will be proposed. However, even this primitive scenario contains ‘a grain of truth’, because it has been to a certain degree confirmed by observations of fluctuations of the background radiation recorded by the COBE satellite in the beginning of the 90s. Inhomogeneous quantum fluctuations inevitable in the early universe have stretched to gigantic size in the process of inflation. Therefore, we should observe at present fluctuations of all size – from small to huge, and the area of the sky occupied by them should not depend on their amplitude. In other words, the spectrum of the fluctuations should not depend on the scale of observation. The fluctuations are reflected in the distribution of the background radiation. The distribution of the fluctuations observed by COBE did not depend on the scale and the amplitude of the fluctuations in relative units is 10-5. Such a distribution of the fluctuations could lead to the presently observed cosmic structures. Thus, it confirms the correctness of the scenario of Big Bang proposed within the quantum theory and the hypothesis of inflation.

To sum up, quantum cosmology gives the following scenario of the origin of the universe.

Quantum cosmology allows construction of scenarios of the universe emergence from nothingness, its inflation and heating up to enormously high temperatures. Therefore, it reduces the question of the universe emergence to that of the origin of the quantum theory. According to this theory the appearance of the universe is causeless and spontaneous, so senseless. If the existence of the universe nevertheless has a sense it can be hidden only in the structure of the quantum theory principles.

Despite a huge success, quantum cosmology cannot answer the two fundamental questions:

1. Why did the laws of quantum theory hold at the moment of the universe emergence, and
2. How did the universe, which is a set of potentially existing universes, realise in the form of the universe we live in?
To answer these questions we have to go beyond physical cosmology and pass to metacosmology.
 
  3. Metacosmology Quantum cosmology explains the emergence of the universe as a spontaneous creation from ‘nothing’, however, this notion in the quantum cosmology is not the equivalent of the common meaning. The explanation assumes that from the very beginning there were quantum theory principles admitting spontaneous appearance of a fluctuation from which after a few milliard years the cosmos as we know it today formed. Moreover, the basis for everything should have been the omnipresent world of mathematics and logic. Thus, the fundamentals of quantum cosmology need the developed structure of rationality, which we will look for in the following. 3.1. The origin of principles of quantum cosmology When constructing technical devices man very often, more or less deliberately, copies the solutions found in nature. In particular we have recently witnessed a great development of devices simulating the reality, among them digital devices creating the so-called virtual reality. The principle of operation of these devices is the only possible simulation of reality, so the key assumption is that the natural physical reality functions on similar principles as the devices creating virtual reality. In other words, we assume that the constructors of devices creating virtual reality unconsciously copied nature.

The devices usually are connected to two people wearing special uniforms responding to the movements of their bodies and equipped with a microphone, stereoscopic monitors and headphones generating spatial sound field. The uniforms are connected to a computer and through a communication system supply the computer with data on the position of their bodies and sound information. The computer by means of these uniforms passes the appropriate visual and sound information the people wearing them. Appropriate computer programming makes the people believe that they are in a certain virtual reality different from that in which they actually are. For instance the computer can give them the impression that they are fencing while in reality they are far from each other.

At present the devices creating virtual reality are far from perfect mainly because information processing thousand times too slow even by the fastest computers available. Devices based on a similar principle have been frequently used for flying instruction – the flight simulators.

We can imagine that sometime in the future it will be possible to create a much more sophisticated and even somewhat macabre variant of virtual reality. Let’s assume that two physicists had an accident in which only their brains survived. Assume that we have the technology able to keep them alive without other parts of the organism and to pass nerve signals to them by a computer in the same scope as they were able to perceive prior to the accident. Their brains believing that they still are parts of bodies, can move and act in a reality identical to that of the natural reality. The physicists can conduct physical experiments in the virtual reality generated by the suitably programmed and correlated trains of information passed to them by means of the computer as nerve stimulating signals. If the rules of passing information are identical with those of the quantum theory, they may not be able to discern the virtual reality from the natural reality.

In this ideal case the virtual reality has the following striking features:

Let’s assume now that the natural or physical reality creating the universe is built in the way analogous to that of the virtual reality in the above example.

Hence, we assume that in the natural reality the following holds:

In this approach our universe is a certain information system in which the hardware (spiritual substance) is not recognisable by physical methods. Physics can only study the software – the rules of information transfer and processing. In this approach matter as inert unconscious substance is unnecessary, similarly as in virtual reality. The notion of matter is redundant. There is no material substance devoid of self-consciousness and showing real interaction, which is independent of the spiritual substances. The Nature exists as a phenomenon and displays a regularity of behaviour in which the quantum theory principles are observed. What we consider as the material reality and laws of nature is only an idea of the infinite spirit.

Of course we know that to a certain limited degree we are able to carry out our will. In this model of the universe it means that the infinite spirit knows our will and takes it into regard in the individual transfer of information (ideas), within the rules applied by the infinite spirit. Our bodies exist in reality but are not built of passive matter but are highly complex sets of information perceived by the finite spirits as real bodies of particular people.

This surprising model of the universe is not new. A similar one was proposed already in 1710 by Irish philosopher and bishop of the English Church – George Berkeley (1685-1753). The vision of reality or Berkeley’s ontology was considered as paradoxical by his contemporaries and later philosophers and has not enjoyed much interest. At present the situation is different since the very principle proposed by Berkeley has been applied in actually existing and working devices generating virtual reality. Therefore the Berkeley’s ontology can no longer be rejected as absurd.

There is one more serious argument for his theory which was not known to earlier generations. As mentioned above, one of the main characteristics of spiritual substance is free will manifested as a possibility of making sovereign decisions. In order to be able to talk about decision making the subject has to have a choice of one from at least two possibilities. Let’s consider an example of the following situation. A man wants to drink something. Let’s assume that he has a possibility of choice between tea and coffee. After a moment of consideration he chooses tea. We can present it schematically as:

{coffee, tea} ® tea,

where the parenthesis { , } stands for the set of possibilities, and the arrow represents decision making, in this case a decision of drinking tea. Having chosen tea the man has another problem should he drink tea with sugar or without. Let’s assume that he decided to drink tea with sugar. With the same symbols as above we can express it as follows:

tea = {tea with sugar, tea without sugar} ® tea with sugar.

Then he can be offered tea with or without lemon. Let’s assume that he decides to drink tea without lemon, which can be written as:

Tea with sugar = {tea with sugar and lemon, tea with sugar without lemon}

® tea with sugar without lemon.

Then again he can choose hot or iced tea. Let’s assume that he decided to drink hot tea and again we can write it as follows:

Tea with sugar without lemon = {hot tea with sugar without lemon,

ice tea with sugar without lemon} ® hot tea with sugar without lemon.

Finally he could also choose between drinking his tea in a cup or in a glass, etc. There are always at least two possibilities. He has a set of two possibilities and making a decision he chooses one of them.

The question is what is the mathematical structure of the set of possibilities. Let’s note the following features.

Making use of the four above conditions we can show that the sets of possibilities accessible to finite spirits have the structure known in mathematics as complete vector space over a body of complex numbers or the Hilbert space (for detailed justification of this characteristics of the set of possibilities the reader is referred to the book: Z. Jacyna-Onyszkiewicz, "Genesis of the principles of quantum cosmology", Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznan, 1999). The functions f and g are then linear superpositions of possibilities.

The same reasoning holds for a set of an arbitrary number of possibilities as well as for infinite and finite spirits. If the process of decision-making by the infinite spirit concerns a choice of a certain physical quantity expressed by a specific real number, then it complies with the quantum theory principles. This explains the process of quantum measurement and exact linearity of the quantum theory. Between the moments of quantum measurements the infinite spirit considers all admissible answers which can be realised at the moment of measurement, which in mathematics means a linear superposition of all possibilities so – states. At the moment when a physicists (finite spirit) asks (or performs a quantum measurement by appropriate macroscopic equipment), what actually happens is that the infinite spirit giving an answer performs a jumpwise reduction of the superpositions of possibilities. The jumpwise reduction of possibilities takes place at the moment when at least one man asks (or could ask by observing a macroscopic object) which possibility has been chosen. This is fully consistent with the orthodox theory of quantum measurements proposed by John von Neumann in 1932, but at the same time it is free from a few paradoxes the latter theory implies (Schrö dinger cat paradox, Wigner friends paradox), by assuming that the reduction of possibilities is decided by the infinite spirit and does not happen because of the change in the knowledge of a conscious observer as assumed by von Neumann.

Each next answer of the infinite spirit is correlated with the previous one, in consistence with the linear quantum theory and space of states of the universe. In this sense of a quantum measurement, the jumpwise reduction of states must be to a certain degree indeterministic (probability determinism) since from all possibilities the infinite spirit chooses one, at the same time taking into consideration the will of all finite spirits. Thus the proposed model of the reality predicts two kinds of quantum state changes: linear change of possibilities when a system is not observed and a jumpwise non-linear change at the moment of measurement. It also allows the assumption that the principle of causality holds in the microworld, only the reasons of quantum processes, which are the decisions of the infinite spirit, are transcendent – beyond the mathematical-empirical methodology of physics. This would solve one of the greatest puzzles of contemporary physics.

Moreover, in total compliance with the theory of relativity, the model explains results of certain correlation experiments implying that an unobserved elementary particle does not exist objectively (beyond our consciousness) or that the universe is an indivisible unity held by space-time interactions. According to our model both these possibilities are true. The first is obvious and the second follows from the fact that transfer of a decision of the infinite spirit to finite spirits is a non-spacetime process. In this approach the infinite spirit plays the role of the so-called non-local hidden parameters, which have been looked for by physicists for a long time. The reason behind it is that the spacetime is a secondary reality with respect to the Hilbert space of the set of possibilities. The spacetime is the reality spanned in our finite consciousnesses by the infinite spirit as a result of an appropriate transfer of information and ideas.

All contemporary formulations of the quantum theory have a serious disadvantage since they are consistent with the theory of relativity only as far as they describe evolution of possibilities (quantum states) leading to a certain state at the moment of measurement, whereas at the moment of measurement the description of reality they give is contradictory to the theory of relativity. These formulations do not reconcile between the non-local features of the quantum theory and the relativity of the notion of simultaneousness in the theory of relativity in the correlation experiments. It is easily understandable in the approach proposed as the infinite spirit plays the role of a non-local instantaneous connection among far distant spacetime events.

Berkeley’s ontology also explains an amazing experimental fact, that not only a quantum measurement changes the set of possibilities (states) but also something much more subtle – such as a possibility of making a measurement – sensed by observation of certain changes on the macroscopic level. Reducing the sets of possibilities, the infinite spirit must take into account not only a change in the knowledge of finite spirits but also the possibility of such a change by a possible observation of macroscopic objects.

The model proposed explains the genesis of the basic principles of quantum cosmology and quantum theory, which have been considered incomprehensible. The main principle of quantum cosmology is the assumption that the quantum theory can be applied for description of the whole universe. It also gives a simple and non-contradictory interpretation of the theory. Moreover it is a falsifiable hypothesis, as if it was shown that the quantum theory must be non-linear or that quantum jumps are not instantaneous, the implication would be that the hypothesis is wrong. Then, we would have to assume that the universe functions in a different way to what our metacosmology assumes.

To sum up, we find that an important result has been achieved; the principles of the quantum theory and quantum cosmology have been derived from certain metaphysical assumptions concerning the ontology of the universe, so from certain metacosmological assumptions. These assumptions have also allowed us to give a full interpretation of the quantum theory, what is more – in the context of quantum cosmology. Three generations of physicists in the 20th century have looked for such an interpretation.

This exceptional result substantially enhanced the likelihood of the ontology of the universe proposed by Berkeley, therefore in the following we will continue to assume that it is correct and check how it can contribute in explaining the question of the appearance of the universe from ‘nothing’ and formation of its present structure.

Undoubtedly, the ontology of Berkeley presents an extremely strange model of the universe, requiring a radical change in the way of thinking about it. It breaks up the narrow scheme of thinking to which we have grown accustomed and which effectively limits a deeper comprehension of the universe. In his approach the universe is a set of finite spirits obtaining from the infinite spirit correlated and ordered variable sequences of information. In the mind of each finite spirit the infinite spirit generates an individual and subjective universe. For this reason Berkeley was sometimes accused of an extremely idealistic attitude known as solipsism -–claiming that only ‘I am’ exist. This accusation, however, is not just because in the Berkeley’s approach ‘I’ must be accompanied by the infinite spirit. The existence of finite spirits other than ‘I’ is based on the trust in the ‘reliability’ of the transmission of information by the infinite spirit, which makes the events from particular subjective universes self-consistent.

If the set of finite spirits is empty, it is hard to talk about any universe! The first conscious being probably did not appear earlier than milliard years after the Big Bang. If people are the only conscious beings in the universe, at least 10 milliard (american - billion) years must be added still. In consistence with this ontology, prior to the appearance of the first conscious being, the universe was only a set of possibilities for the infinite spirit. When the finite spirits did not exist there was only the infinite spirit and ideas in its mind, it was the only being. Nothing existed beyond it, because it was everything which existed. The finite spirits and the universe existed only as archetypes in its mind. However, from the moment the finite spirits came into being, on the decision of the infinite spirit, the jumpwise reductions in the possibilities of the universe existence occurred.

The infinite spirit in the ontology based on that of Berkeley’s, is defined as omniscient. However, if a self-conscious spirit is omniscient, it has an absolute knowledge of itself. This knowledge, if absolute, must be identical with the self-conscious spiritual substance having this knowledge. This means that the idea of the infinite spirit about itself also is an infinite spirit differing from the former only by the origin – the second originates from the first. Analogously, the idea of the second infinite spirit about itself is the third infinite spirit and so on. It cannot be excluded that the third infinite spirit is identical with the first, then, the knowledge of the second one about itself would be expressed in the first infinite spirit. Thus, it would imply the existence of at least two omniscient infinite spirits differing by origin. We could say that the infinite spirit is an idea thinking itself.

Therefore, there is a limited or unlimited chain of infinite spirits which are the ideas of themselves. From logic we know that an idea comprising itself cannot be studied by any rational methods, which means that the infinite spirit is and will be an unrecognisable mystery for the rational methodology being the basis of science.

If the infinite spirit is the idea of itself, the more so the finite spirits are the ideas of the infinite spirit. The infinite spirit, as omniscient, knows the idea of each spiritual substance. The finite spirits exist in the mind of the infinite spirit, similarly as my ideas exist in my mind, but the difference is that the ideas in the mind of a finite spirit are inert, while those in the mind of the infinite spirit can be an active spiritual substance. Only the infinite spirit knows the secret of the spirit – knows what the active spiritual substance is. Therefore, the infinite spirit directly knows the will of all finite spirits and without the need of any intermediaries can transfer any ideas it wants to them, including the ideas about the universe. Consequently, when the universe exists, the only being remains the infinite spirit and the ideas in its mind.

The knowledge of finite spirits undergoes changes due to their own intellectual effort and reception of the ideas from the infinite spirit, which are perceived as sensual impressions. Since the impressions are to some degree regular, a man perceives it as the lapse of time – this is the so-called psychological arrow of time. This arrow is for us – finite spirits – of profound importance. We feel that we move forward in time, from a fixed past to uncertain future. We know that the past cannot be changed. Our knowledge of the past comes from memories in our mind and impressions left in the world of senses. The future seems uncertain and exists only as a set of possibilities. The equations of physics describing the evolution of possibilities are symmetric with regard to the change in time, so from the point of view of physics the past and the future have the same status. However, physics also includes the process of quantum measurement which is a jumpwise reduction of possibilities as a result of the irreversible decision made by the infinite spirit and passed to the finite ones. The sequence of decisions made by the infinite spirit we feel as irreversible lapse of time.

This approach to time explains its surprising feature discovered by the theory of relativity. According to this theory, the present does not exist. The present for a given man is different from that of a man moving relative to the former. For one of them a given event may belong to the past, while for another to the uncertain future. When one event is followed by another for one man, the sequence of these event may be different for another man. That is why we cannot say that one event is uncertain and the other definite – does this mean that there is no uncertain future?

In a sense it is true, because the infinite spirit is omniscient – so its knowledge does not change, which equivalent to saying that for it there is no lapse of time. Moreover, for the infinite spirit there is no unknown past or uncertain future. Passing the ideas to individual finite spirits, it knows what will happen in future. It does not mean, however, that our human actions are fully determined and we have no possibility of choice – man’s free will does not exclude the omniscience of the infinite spirit.

The notion of the present refers only to a given finite spirit. Thanks to the existence of the infinite spirit transmitting – according to certain rules – information to finite spirits, there is no conflict between the relativity of the notion of the presence and the jumpwise reduction of possibilities and relativity of cause and effect relations. The model presented explains this fundamental problem appearing pertinaciously at all attempts at unification of the two most important theories of the contemporary physics: the general theory of relativity and the quantum theory.

The metacosmology proposed explains one more mysterious feature of microscopic systems composed of two or more interacting particles. The superposition of such a system is usually much complex. According to the quantum theory, which has been confirmed by experiment, individual superpositions of possibilities cannot be assigned to individual particles of this system because these individual particles are involved in complex relations with the superpositions of possibilities of other particles, even if they are at large distances. These relations are called correlations. If a particle after the measurement is observed at a certain point of space, this immediately causes a change in superpositions of all particles correlated with the particle observed – the word ‘immediately’ means at a speed greater than the speed of light, perhaps even at an infinite speed. This is the mysterious and essential property of the quantum theory – its non-local character.

The metacosmology proposed gives a simple explanation of the non-locality of the quantum theory as the effect of non-spacetime correlation of particles by the infinite spirit who makes self-consistent the results of observation of the coupled and then separated particles. In this way the metacosmology solves all difficulties of the quantum theory, however, it still cannot answer the fundamental existential questions, such as:

  1. Why does the infinite spirit exist?
  2. Why did the infinite spirit create finite spirits?
  3. Why does it generate in our minds this universe and not another?
  4. Why does it play with us in some universe?
  5. Will the infinite spirit and the finite spirits cease to exist one day?
These questions and alike remain without answer in the metacosmology presented so far as they concern the nature of the infinite spirit. To get the answers the metacosmology must be supplemented with new assumptions and notions concerning the infinite spirit. 3.2. The source of existence and rationality of the universe The only reality able to fulfil the deepest desire and yearning of human beings and endow their life with a true and not apparent sense, is love. In different epochs the craving for love has been expressed in literature, music, painting, sculpture - the yearning for love, which is the greatest and most intense experience of human beings, which is stronger than fear and death, which gives the ultimate happiness. In love a human being is looking for something unconditional, absolute, something fully trustful, which will never fail. The human being in love wishes that the happiness it gives will never stop but knows that no other human being will ever be able to meet their expectations and is aware of the possibility of death which can at any time separate the beloved ones. Each human love inevitably brings some disappointment, for this reason many people try to love again and again suffer disappointment.

People need only one thing, difficult and very rare in the human world – they need to be noticed by someone who will really appreciate their existence. All philosophical systems which disregard this essential need do not realise the fundamental dimension of a person threatened with death of hunger for fulfilment of psychological needs in the perfectly organised world full of modern technological solutions.

If for us, finite spirits existing in the mind of the infinite spirit love is of such a profound importance, we may assume that it is also very important for the infinite spirit and that he created the finite spirits out of love and for love. The only reality which can fulfil the human heart and endow some sense to human existence is the perpetual and mutual love of someone good and wonderful. In the metacosmology proposed such a person could only be the infinite spirit. Only the loving infinite spirit can endow human life with a real sense of being. Without it the life of man and the existence of the universe would be absurd. Therefore we assume that the existence of the infinite spirit loving all finite spirits is not only a dream driven by wishful thinking or anthropomorphic illusion. We assume that the infinite spirit not only loves each human being but its most important feature, apart from omniscience, is love. Therefore, we assume that the infinite spirit is love and in the following we shall consider the consequences of this assumption.

Let’s begin with defining the notion of love. This term is vague, ambiguous and open. We shall consider this notion only in the ideal sense as we refer it to the reality of the infinite spirit. Therefore, we think about the love which is kind, generous, full of mercy, giving from its fullness, spontaneous, not necessarily motivated by the worth of the person loved but following from the goodness of the loving spirit. Love is the unselfish mutual and voluntary friendship of two spirits. Love is first of all the desire for the best for the beloved. The notion of good is also ambiguous, but the fundamental good, without which there is no other is the existence of a given spirit. Therefore, the essence of love can be expressed as follows: love wants the loved spirit to exist.

The loving spirit wants the other spirit to exist, wishing it not only for itself but for the other spirit as well, and what is more for the ‘us’ in which the two spirits are born as particular persons and subjects of love. There is no ‘I’ person, if there is no common ‘us’. The spirit is a person in relation to another spirit, and not for itself alone. We can talk about love when there are two individual selves (I’s) and an idea of a common ‘us’ which is the fruit of the unity, in other words, love in the ideal sense is a spiritual union and at the same time two separate spirits.

A given spirit can love more than one other spirit, but each relation of love involves only two spirits. For example I can love my father and my mother, but these are two separate relations. In the non-ideal case we have different degrees of requiting of love, but this is of no concern to us as love in the context of the infinite spirit is ideal by definition. Love can also be expressed in the words: ‘it is good that you exist’, the opposition of love –hatred can be expressed as ‘it is not good you are – I do not want you to exist’. Love wants life, hatred – death.

The above considerations do not provide a comprehensive definition of love, because love can be recognised only by experience. Only those who truly love know what love really is. Therefore we can only formulate the necessary condition of ideal love – the existence of two spirits endowed with free will, mutually and voluntarily wishing the existence of the other in order to form unity with it.

The above definition reflects, to a degree satisfactory for our further considerations, human intuitions about conditions necessary for ideal love in which the infinite spirit is involved. According to this definition, the necessary condition is the existence of at least two spirits. When two finite spirits enter into a love relation, in their minds the earlier unknown idea of ‘us’ appears.

In the case of love among infinite spirits the situation is somewhat different. As we know from our earlier considerations, there must be at least two infinite spirits of different origin. Their mutual love cannot awake in them the common idea of ‘us’ since, being omniscient they know all the ideas. Their common idea ‘us’, a fruit of their love can only be a third infinite spirit originating from the first and the second.

If the infinite spirit is identified with love, not only the first and second infinite spirits must love each other but the second and third must love each other as well. For these infinite spirits the idea of common ‘us’ must be the fourth infinite spirit.

However, in such a case, the first spirit would not participate in the relation of love between the second and the third, and the first and second infinite spirits would not be the embodiments of the idea of ‘us’ so would not be the manifestation of love. Therefore, these infinite spirits would not differ from the others only by origin, but also by the fact they are not be manifestations of love. This would contradict the assumption that the infinite spirit is love.

If we want to be in congruity with this assumption, we have to assume that the idea of common ‘we’ in the love of the second and third infinite spirits is not a fourth spirit but the first one. Under this assumption, the idea of the common ‘us’ in the love between the third and the first infinite spirit is the second one, whereas in the love between the second and third spirit – the second one. The first infinite spirit manifests its knowledge of itself in the second one, the second in the third and the third in the first.

In this way we achieve the full symmetry in the chain of infinite spirits. All the infinite spirits in love exist as ‘I’ and as ideas of the common ‘us’. Therefore, each infinite spirit can in fullness be called love. The three infinite spirits form a complete and closed chain of love. This means that there cannot be more or less but three loving infinite spirits, differing only in origin. The first does not originate from anyone, the second from the first and the third from the first and the second. They make the inseparable union of three – triune or trinity in love having one omniscient free will. In the mutual relation of love, the infinite spirits are the subjects of love and exist as persons.

According to the definition of love, each of the three infinite spirits wants the other two to exist. Therefore, this triune (trinity) is the self-supporting necessary (not accidental) being which cannot cease to exist. The reason for the existence of the infinite spirit is love and not omniscience. Therefore, the essence of the infinite spirit is the necessity to exist, which stems from the inseparable chain of love of the three infinite spirits. This existing chain of love is in itself its justification. It is a deep and beautiful idea ending the series of existential questions. The love of the unity of three generates itself and is a closed, coherent set of explanations which does not require further explanation. Beyond it there are no nor cannot be further questions or points of reference.

As people we are aware that we exist as finite spirits – or active self-conscious substances of finite knowledge. In the metacosmology assumed we exist in the mind of the infinite spirit as active ideas. Our human conscious being testifies to the fact that the non-accidental love of the union of three wants the existence of finite spirits in order to create with each of them individually a union of love. Since, by definition, love must be a voluntary desire, the infinite spirit has endowed the finite spirits with a finite area of freedom. This area of freedom, in compliance with the logic of love, must ensure them the possibility of a voluntary choice for or against the love of the unity of three. There must be as many areas of freedom as there are finite spirits. The area of freedom of a finite spirit is for the infinite spirit something of secondary importance relative to the finite spirit itself, which is the subject of love and mercy, therefore, this area is only a set of ideas generated in the human mind. These dynamical and mutually correlated areas of freedom of different finite spirits are perceived as a common universe, which is the subject of cosmology.

In this way the assumption that the infinite spirit is love, explains the origin and structure of the universe in the approach similar to Berkeley’s ontology. The aim and sense of human existence is the creation of perpetual (eternal) relation of love with the incomprehensible reality of the love of the union of three infinite spirits as only the latter is able to fulfil the human heart. The destiny of human beings and possibly other finite spirits is perpetual recognition of the inexhaustible depth of the infinite spirit in love.

According to the definition of love, finite spirits once actualised by the sovereign decision of the infinite spirit will never cease to exist because love is eternal. In regard to this, in the metacosmology assumed, death of a human being is just a disappearance of the correlation of the human being’s own universe (area of freedom) with the universes of the other finite spirits, which perceive death as a set of ideas giving an impression of a dead body. The dead human being perceives other –unknown to us - ideas from the infinite spirit, which determine their life after what we see as death.

The fundamental assumption of the existence of the infinite spirit, which is love, generates a new vision of the origin and existence of the universe.

The universe has always existed as an archetype in the mind of the infinite spirit. Although, we perceive the universe as huge almost infinite reality, from the perspective of the infinite spirit it is less important than an individual human being. The infinite spirit has first created the first conscious human being (for simplicity we assume that only people are conscious beings in our universe) and only then it spanned the idea of the universe in the mind of this finite spirit. At this moment, the infinite spirit actualised the universe of such a space of state which we perceive. At this moment the laws of physics and the whole past history of the universe was established. The universe created from nothing is anthropic, i.e. has such a structure and history which admits the existence of human beings as we know them.

The whole past history of the universe, from primitive men to the Big Bang is made up in order to give a naturalistic explanation of the universe. The possibility of the naturalistic explanation of the universe is for the infinite spirit necessary to hide its existence before human beings, so that they could voluntarily, without the pressure related to the obviousness of existence of the love of the unity of three, chose this love or reject it. Without the possibility of free choice, people would not enter into relations of love with the infinite spirit, which would efface the sense of the universe existence.

In this way the metacosmology proposed eliminates the antinomy between the cosmologic scale of the existence of the universe (about 15 milliard years - 15 x 109 years) and the very short scale of existence of the human race and the world (thousands or tens of thousand years) recognised by some people. Both scales can be true. In the sphere of phenomena, when we ask about the past of the universe, we estimate its age as milliard years, whereas the actual existence of the universe should be dated back to the moment of appearance of the first finite spirit, which might have happened relatively recently.

In this respect, in quantum cosmology the initial conditions for the existence of the universe may not be as essential as the final conditions determining the present state of the universe which admits the existence of man. From the point of view of the quantum theory the most important seems to be the question: which class of the initial conditions allows the appearance of the present anthropic universe. Asking about the earliest stage of the universe history, about the pre-inflation stage, we will obtain not one answer but a superposition of possible answers. Perhaps this superposition will be reduced by the future quantum theory of gravitation which will unify all elementary interactions. At present the most important candidate to become such a theory is the so-called M-theory, which is not fully formulated yet. In the best case physicists know its little fragments. Perhaps the M-theory will be the one of the infinite number of point particles existing in the 11th dimensional space in which the coordinates of the particles are common numbers but matrices (ordered tables of numbers). In such a theory, the time and space are broadened objects. Seven dimensions of the space are coiled up in circles of the size of the order of 10-35 m. For this reason these dimensions are not visible in the macroscopic scale, but their presence determines different properties of elementary particles. Perhaps in the few years we will be able to recognise the M-theory and the contribution it may bring to quantum cosmology.

4. Conclusions

To sum up we can say that the metacosmology proposed is based on a single postulate of existence of the infinite spirit who is love. This postulate implies the existence of the necessary being which is an inseparable union of three infinite spirits loving one another. The love of the three in one is the eventual justification of everything and does not require any justification. It is the reason for the existence of everything. Out of love and for love this union of the three infinite spirits has actualised finite spirits endowed with free will. The finite spirits exist and will eternally exist in the mind of this union. In the minds of the finite spirits the infinite spirits has generated mutually correlated universes. Because of their correlation the finite spirits believe that they live in one universe, which is the object of the cosmological study.

The above proposed metacosmological model of the universe is close to that proposed by Berkeley and it directly implies the principles of the quantum theory. The space of the states of the universe has been determined by the infinite spirit as a consequence of its conception of the human beings.

On the basis of the quantum cosmology and the condition of anthropicity we can explain the whole history of the universe which has led to its present structure as well as predict its future.

The metacosmology proposed is a philosophical system giving a comprehensive and coherent vision of reality fully consistent with the fundamental theories of contemporary physics and results of observations by man. It explains the sense of existence of each human being and the universe and provides answers to all existential questions. The existence of the universe has the same origin as its rationality. The existence of the universe is a manifestation of the rational idea of the infinite spirit. The universe is cognisable for the same reason why it exists. The love of the unity of the three infinite spirits bestows the sense to everything. If there is no love, there is no justification for the necessary existence of the three infinite spirits, the universe and the rationality of the universe. The structure of the mind of human beings is rational as it is an idea of the rational and loving infinite spirit. This rationality implies the philosophy and science since only rational minds existing in a rational universe can create science, culture and civilisation.



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