In this book the author has brought together his longstanding interests in theory of scientific rationality and hermeneutic ontology by developing a hermeneutic alternative to analytic (and naturalist) epistemology of science. The “hermeneutic philosophy of science” is less the name of a new field of philosophical inquiry than a demand for a “repetition of the basic philosophical questions of science” from the hermeneutic point of view. The book addresses chiefly two subjects: (I) the hermeneutic response to the models of rational reconstruction of scientific knowledge; (II) the specificity of hermeneutico-ontological approach to the cognitive pluralism in science.